Photo by Suzanne Neubauer

Michael Levine, MD


  • Hyperbaric Medicine, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine Society (2012)
  • Medical Toxicology Fellowship, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center (2010)
  • Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Massachusetts General Hospital Emergency Medicine, Boston (2008)
  • MD Rosalind Franklin University of Health Science/Chicago Medical School (2004)
  • BS Gerontology, University of Southern California, (1999)

Michael Levine is a Los Angeles native, who completed his emergency medicine residency at the Harvard Affiliated Emergency Medicine program, based out of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. After residency, he completed his medical toxicology fellowship at Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center in Phoenix, AZ. After staying as faculty for a year in Phoenix, he moved back to Los Angeles, where he joined the faculty at USC. He is currently the division chief of medical toxicology. He is actively involved in patient care, research, and serves on numerous hospital and university committees.

Email: [email protected]

Selected Publications:

Levine M, Stellpflug S, Pizon A, et. al. Estimating the impact of adopting the revised United Kingdom acetaminophen treatment nomogram in the US population. Clin Toxicol. 2017; 55:569-72.

Levine M, Flores J, Seabury SA, et. al. Impact of the use of a regional poison center in an urban EMS dispatch system. J Med Toxicol. 2017; 13:47-51.

Levine M, Huang M, Henderson SO, et. al. Aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid fail to reverse dabigatran-induced coagulopathy. Am J Ther. 2016; 23:e1619-22.

Levine M, Sanko S, Eckstein M. Assessing the risk of prehospital administration of naloxone with subsequent refusal of care. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2016; 20:566-9.

Marshall A, Levine M, Howell ML, et. al. Dose-related pulmonary complication rates after fresh frozen plasma administration for warfarin reversal. J Thromb Haemost. 2016; 14:324-30

Levine M, O’Connor AD, Padilla-Jones A, et. al. Comparison of prothrombin time and aspartate amino transferase in predicting hepatotoxicity after acetaminophen overdose. J Med Toxicol. 2016; 12:100-6.

Levine M, O’Connor AD, Padilla-Jones A, et. al. Comparison of prothrombin time and aspartate amino transferase in predicting hepatotoxicity after acetaminophen overdose. J Med Toxicol. 2016; 12:100-6.

O’Connor AD, Padilla-Jones A, Gerkin RD, Levine M. Prevalence of rhabdomyolysis in sympathomimetic toxicity: a comparision of stimulants. J Med Toxicol. 11:195-200, 2015.

Froberg BA, Levine M, Beuhler MC, et. al. Acute methylenedioxypyrovalerone toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 11:185-94, 2015.

Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, O’Connor AD, et. Al. Prolonged acetaminophen-protein adduct elimination during renal failure, lack of adduct removal by hemodiafiltration, and urinary adduct concentrations after acetaminophen overdose. J Med Toxicol. 11:169-78, 2015.

Levine M, Pizon AF, Padilla-Jones A, et. al. Warfarin overdose: a 25 year experience. J Med Toxicol. 10:156-64, 2014

Levine M, Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, et. al. Bleeding following rattlesnake envenomation in patients with pre-envenomation use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications. Acad Emerg Med. 21:301-7, 2014.
Levine M, Skolnik AB, Ruha AM, et. al. Complications following antidotal use of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy. J Med Toxicol. 10:10-4, 2014.
Levine M, Wyler B, LoVecchio F, et. al. Risk of intracranial injury after minor head trauma in patients with pre-injury use of clopidogrel. Am J Emerg Med. 32:71-4, 2014.

Levine M, Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, et. al. Critical care management of verapamil and diltiazem overdose with a focus on vasopressors: A 25 year experience at a singele center. Ann Emerg Med. 62:252-8, 2013.

Levine M, Froberg B, Ruha AM, et. al. Assessing the toxicity and associated costs among pediatric patients admitted with unintentional poisonings of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder drugs in the United States. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 51:147-50, 2013.

Levine M, Swenson S, McCormick T, Henderson SO, Thomas SH, Markland FS. Reversal of thienopyridine-induced platelet dysfunction following desmopressin administration. J Med Toxicol. 9:139-43, 2013

Levine M, Mihalic J, Ruha AM, French RE, Brooks DE. Heavy metal contaminants in yerberia shop products. J Med Toxicol. 9:81-4, 2013

Wiegand TJ, Wax PM, Schwartz T, et. al. The Toxicology Investigators Consortium case registry—the 2011 experience. J Med Toxicol. 8:360-77, 2012.

Levine M, LoVecchio F, Ruha AM, Chu G, Roque P. Influence of drug use on morbidity and mortality in heat stroke. J Med Toxicol. 8:252-7, 2012.

Levine M, Curry SC, Ruha AM, Pizon AF, Boyer E, Burns J, Bilin D, Gerkin RD. Ethylene glycol elimination kinetics and outcomes in patients managed without hemodialysis. Ann Emerg Med. 59:527-31, 2012.

Fiona Garlich-Horner, MD


  • Medical Toxicology Fellowship, New York University/New York City Poison Control Center (2012)
  • Hennepin County Medical Center Residency in Emergency Medicine (2010)
  • MD, Oregon Health & Sciences University (2007)
  • BA, Lewis & Clark College (2000)

Fiona Garlich Horner received her medical degree from Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, Oregon and completed her residency in Emergency Medicine at Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She then went on to do a fellowship in Medical Toxicology at the New York City Poison Control Center. After completing fellowship in 2012, Dr. Garlich travelled north to Calgary, Alberta, Canada, where she was an attending medical toxicologist with the Poison and Drug Information Service and a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Calgary. Dr. Garlich is now the director of the Toxicology rotation in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Southern California. Her interests include toxicology education, toxicity of dietary and weight-loss supplements, and pharmaceutical labeling.

Email: [email protected]

Selected Publications:

Garlich FM, Balakrishnan K, Shah SK, Howland MA, Fong J, Nelson LS. Prolonged altered mental status and bradycardia following pediatric donepezil ingestion. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Apr;52(4):291-4.

Garlich FM, Goldman M, Pepe J, Nelson LS, Allan MJ, Goldstein DA, Goldfarb DS, Hoffman RS. Hemodialysis clearance of glyphosate following a life-threatening ingestion of glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Jan;52(1):66-71.

Chen BC, Viny AD, Garlich FM, Basciano P, Howland MA, Smith SW, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS. Hemorrhagic complications associated with dabigatran use. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2012 Nov;50(9):854-7.

Garlich FM, Alsop JA, Anderson DL, Geller RJ, Kalugdan TT, Roberts DJ, Thomas LC. Suicide by Cyanide-Containing Jewelry Cleaner in the US Hmong Community: A Case Series. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2012 Feb;50(2):136-40.

Meghan Spyres, MD


  • Medical Toxicology Fellowship, Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center (2016)
  • Bellevue/NYU Emergency Medicine Residency Program (2014)
  • MD Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons (2010)
  • BS Biologic Sciences and Spanish, Tufts University (2002)

Meghan Spyres is originally from Tulsa, Oklahoma. She attended medical school at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City and stayed in New York to attending Emergency Medicine residency at Bellevue/NYU where she was chief resident. She completed her medical toxicology fellowship training in 2016 at Banner—University Medical Center in Phoenix, Arizona. She is actively involved in research and areas of research interest include rattlesnake envenomations, drugs of abuse, Free Opean Access Medical Education, and the intersection of critical care and toxicology. She is co-founder of Women in Toxicology, a group that promotes women in academic medicine.

Email: [email protected]

Selected Publications:
Spyres M, Curry S. “Salicylates” in Critical Care Toxicology, the Diagnosis and Management of Critically Poisoned Patients 2e, 2017. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20790-2_11-1)

Spyres M, Curry S. “Sodium Nitroprusside” in Critical Care Toxicology, the Diagnosis and Management of Critically Poisoned Patients 2e, 2017. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20790-2_10-1),

Curry S, Spyres M. “Cyanide: Hydrogen Cyanide, Inorganic Cyanide Salts, and Nitriles” in Critical Care Toxicology, the Diagnosis and Management of Critically Poisoned Patients 2e, 2017. (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20790-2_101-1)

Spyres MB, O’Connor AD, Gerkin RD. Limitations of the evidence supporting use of undetectable acetaminophen levels obtained <4 hours post-ingestion to rule out toxicity. Clin Toxicol. 2017;55:366.

Levine M, Spyres M. Fire-related inhalational injury. N Eng J Med. 2016;375:1905.
Jang DH, Greenwood JC, Spyres MB, Eckmann DM. Measurement of mitochondrial respiration and motility in acute care sepsis, trauma, and poisoning. J Intensive Care Med. 2017;32:86-94.

Spyres MB, Oakley E, Graeme KA. Ultrasound to evaluate effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Intern Emerg Med. 2016. Epub ahead of print.

Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Seifert S, Onisko N, Padilla Jones A, Smith EA. Occupational Snake Bites: a Prospective Case Series of Patients Reported to the ToxIC North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. 2016 (Epub ahead of print)

Swaminathan AK, Berkowitz R, Baker A, Spyres M. “Are Emergency Medicine Residents Receiving Applicable Video Laryngoscopy Training: A Survey Determining What Devices are Present in Non-Academic Emergency Departments.” J Emerg Med. 2015;48(5):613-619.

Heise CW, Tran A, Kang AM, Spyres MB. Article you might have missed. J Med Toxicol. 2014;10(4):428-430.

Jang DH, Spyres MB, Fox L, Manini AF. Toxin-induced cardiovascular failure. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2014;32(1):79-102.

Elissa Moore, DO


  • Medical Toxicology Fellowship, Banner University Medical Center (2017)
  • Lehigh Valley Health Network Emergency Medicine Residency (2015)
  • DO, New York College of Osteopathic Medicine at NYIT (2011)
  • BA, Hampshire College (2003)

Elizabeth Moore (Elissa) was born and raised in Colorado and then moved to the Northeast to attend college. After graduating from undergrad at Hampshire College in Amherst, MA, she moved to New York City and worked for 4 years as a research coordinator in the ED at NYU/Bellevue Hospital. She attended New York College of Osteopathic Medicine at NYIT in Old Westbury, NY and completed her Emergency Medicine residency at Lehigh Valley Health Network in Bethlehem/Allentown, PA., where she was a chief resident. She completed her Medical Toxicology Fellowship at Banner University Medical Center in Phoenix, AZ. Current research interests include: Management of ETOH withdrawal, envenomations, novel drugs of abuse. She is in the process of developing a new medical toxicology podcast called "Tox in Ten" and is a founding member of Women in Toxicology, a group that promotes women in academic toxicology.

Email: [email protected]

Selected Publications:

“Rattlesnake Envenomation Treated Without Maintenance Antivenom Dosing” Retrospective review of outcomes of rattlesnake envenomation with and without maintenance antivenom dosing Role: Co-Investigator Pilot Data presented by primary author as platform presentation at NACCT, Publication Pending

“Massive Honey Bee Envenomation” Retrospective review clinical manifestations of massive honey bee envenomation Role: Primary Investigator Data Collection
Watts DC, Oakley ER, Malashock HR, Moore EC, LoVecchio F. Articles You May Have Missed J Med Toxicol. 2016 Dec 20. doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0596-y.

Greenberg M, Moore EC, Nguyen M, Stello B, Goldberg A, Barraco R, Porter B, Kurt A, Dusza S, Kane B. Perceived fall risk and functional decline: gender differences in patient’s willingness to discuss fall risk, fall history, or to have a home safety evaluation. Yale J Biol Med. 2016 Jun 27;89(2):261-7. PMID: 27354852